VCHIK Resistance

المقاومة الفيزيائية والكيميائية:
يتم تعطيل الفيروس عن طريق التجفيف ودرجات الحرارة فوق 58 درجة مئوية.
لا توجد بيانات محددة أو معلومات محددة تتعلق بقابلية الفيروس
من chikungunya إلى المطهرات / المطهرات. ومع ذلك ، فإن الخصائص صالحة لل
تعتبر معظم الفيروسات المغلفة بالدهون قابلة للقياس لـ VCHIK:
حساسية إلى 70 ٪ من الإيثانول ، هيبوكلوريت الصوديوم ، الفورمالديهايد ، جلوتارالدهيد ،
الفينول ، اليودوفور ومركبات الأمونيوم الرباعية.

The Chigugunya Vector

ناقلات:
والناقلات الرئيسية لانتقال فيروس الشيكونغونيا هي البعوض الإناث
مثل الزاعجة ، وأهمها Ae. aegypti و Ae. الضنك. البعوض
kind Aedes تنشط معظمها خلال اليوم ، مما يجعل من الصعب السيطرة عليها
النواقل.

2 MM Thiboutot، S Kannan، OU Kawalekar، DJ Shedlock، et al. شيكونغونيا: وباء ناشئ محتمل؟ بلوس
Disl Trop Dis. أبريل 2010 4 (4): e623.
 شيكونغونيا
CHIKUNGUYA معلومات ورقة
تلعب البعوض دورًا متجهًا وخزانًا لأنه لا يتأثر بالفيروس و
لا يزال مصابا طوال حياته (حوالي شهر). ويمكن أيضا أن ينقل الفيروس إلى الجيل
بجانب طريق المبيض. البيض يقاوم لعدة أشهر في البيئة الخارجية و
يمكن البقاء على قيد الحياة لفترة تجفيف طويلة تصل إلى عام. إذا كانوا مصابين ،
فقسهم يمكن أن يكون نقطة البداية لدورة جديدة من الفيروس.
وعزت. aegypti موجود حاليًا في المناطق بين المناطق الاستوائية في جميع القارات
قادر على إعادة استعمار المناطق التي تم القضاء عليها فيها ، مثل أوروبا
البحر الأبيض المتوسط. أهميته في انتقال يرتبط بكفاءته وناقلاته
ecology4 المنزل
. لديها تكيف جيد مع الحياة الحضرية (تتكاثر فيه
البيئة البشرية ، وخاصة في الإمداد بالمياه المنزلية) وقد طور
تقارب قوي للدم البشري (ويفضل أن لاذع البشر).
وعزت. Albopictus أو “البعوض النمر” تتوسع حاليا جغرافيا و
قادرة على استعمار البلدان المعتدلة لأن بيضها يمكن أن يدخل في diapause5
إذا كانت الظروف
غير مواتية. وعزت. الألبوبيكتوس يمكن أيضا ، في المختبر ، تضخيم و
نقل العديد من مسببات الأمراض مثل chikungunya وفيروس حمى الضنك.
كما تم اتهام عدد كبير من البعوض ، وخاصة الموجودة في أفريقيا
في انتقال فيروس chikungunya ، مثل: Ae. furcifer ، أي. تايلور ، أي.
vittatus ، Ae. فولجنز ، أي. luteocephalus، Ae. dalzieli ، Ae. vigilax ، Ae. camptorhyntites ، Ae. الإفريقي،
عبد اللطيف. neoafricanus وكذلك Cuul annulirostris و Mansonia uniformis.

Chikungunya (VCHIK)

الجرثومية:
فيروس chikungunya (VCHIK) هو فيروس ينتمي إلى فيروسات arbovirus (“فيروس تنقله المفصليات”
“). هذه هي فيروسات الحمض النووي الريبي التي تنتقل عن طريق المفصليات الماصة للدم (البعوض ،
الرمل والقراد). ينتمون إلى 3 عائلات رئيسية: Flaviviridae ، Togaviridae
و Bunyaviridae. فيروس chikungunya هو عضو في جنس alphavirus الذي ينتمي إلى
عائلة Togaviridae ومجمع مستضدات Semliki Forest (مع ، من بين أمور أخرى ، الفيروسات
نهر روس وأونيونغ نيونج). هناك عدة خطوط: شرق وجنوب أفريقيا وغرب أفريقيا و
آسيوي ، يمكن تمييزه فقط عن طريق تحليل الجينوم الفيروسي.
تم عزل هذا الفيروس لأول مرة في أوغندا في عام 1953 ، خلال وباء في
شرق افريقيا. اسم “chikungunya” يأتي من ماكوندي. وهذا يعني “الرجل المشي
عازمة “أو” كرة لولبية “، ويشير إلى ألم مفصلي تعطيل
المرضى الذين تعاقدوا مع فيروس الشيكونغونيا.

الخزان:
الخزانات الرئيسية هي البعوض والبشر والقرود الأخرى. الكائنات
البشر بمثابة خزان للفيروس خلال فترات الوباء ، بينما خلال
فترات الوباء ، تم تجريم العديد من الخزانات الأخرى مثل القرود ،
القوارض والطيور.
يتم الاحتفاظ الفيروسات في دورة الإنسان البعوض في المراكز الحضرية
المدارية. غالبًا ما تكون دورات قرد البعوض (دورة انتقال العدوى)
لوحظ في غابات غرب أفريقيا وجنوب شرق آسيا.

Chikugunya 2020

Chikungunya هو مرض فيروسي ينتقل عن طريق الزاعجة المصرية. لها الرئيسية
الأعراض هي الحمى وآلام العضلات والصداع والغثيان والتعب والطفح الجلدي. في
في الحالات الأكثر شدة ، يمكن أن يسبب هذا المرض آلام المفاصل الحادة والمستمرة. هذه الأشكال
الآثار الخطيرة تؤثر بشكل رئيسي على الأطفال حديثي الولادة والبالغين ، وخاصة أولئك الذين تزيد أعمارهم عن 65 عامًا.
لا يوجد تطعيم أو علاج لهذا المرض. تم العثور على المرض في دارفور ، السودان. في العقود الأخيرة ، ناقلات البعوض
من chikungunya وصلت إلى العاصمة ونقل المرض
سجلت لأول مرة في وسط المدينة.

Gram Multistainer for TB

Gram multistainer
Dagatron autostainer

AT-2000F AFB Fluorescence

This Automated rotative 10 slides heatable M Turberculosis Stainer provides fast, easy and steady regeneration procedure for staining sputum specimen (for discovering Tubercle Bacillus) based on Fluorescence staining process by automatic system control.

AT-2000G GRAM provides stable, easy and fast process for staining specimens according to GRAM staining method by automated system control.

AT-2000Z AFB Ziehl-Neelsen

This Automatic Stainer provides fast, easy and stable staining process for staining sputum specimen (for discovering Tubercle Bacillus) according into ZiehlNeelsen staining method by automatic system control.

AT-2000K AFB kinyoun

This Auto Stainer provides fast, easy and steady staining process for staining sputum specimen (for discovering Tubercle Bacillus)according into ZiehlNeelsen staining method by automated system control.
With a small footprint, easy functionality and a capacity of up to 20 slides per stain this is the ideal multifunction automatic staining machine. Per stain this is the ideal multi-function automated staining machine with a small footprint, simple operation and a capacity of around 20 slides.

10 slides stainer
dagatron autostainer for TB

AT-2000H Hematology provides fast, easy and stable staining process for staining blood.


AT_3003 GRAM &Ziehl-Neelsen(GRAM/ / AFB Double stainer 2 in 1)

The DAGATRON AFB Multi Stainer provides quick, easy and steady staining procedure for staining sputum specimen (for detecting Tubercle Bacillus) by automatic system controller. Per stain this is the ideal multifunction staining 24, with a small footprint, simple functionality and a potential of around 20 slides.


The DualStainer is able to work with two staining approaches: Gram & ZiehlNeelsen (CBAT3002) or Gram & Fluorescence (CBAT3003) Gram/AFB Double Stainer The innovative heating system empowers ZN hotstaining system to be utilized if desired. The DAGATRON GRAM / AFB Double Stainer provides quick, simple and steady staining procedure for staining clinical trials (based on GRAM method) and sputum specimens (for discovering.
With a small footprint, easy operation and a potential of up to 20 slides per blot this is the ideal multi-function staining machine. With a small footprint, simple operation and a capacity of up to 10 slides per blot this is the automated staining machine. Stainer provides fast, simple and steady staining process for staining sputum specimen (for detecting Tubercle Bacillus) based on Fluorescence staining procedure by automatic system management.

DAGATRONICS CORPORATION, is a professional for the manufacturing and exports of Test & Measuring tools and Automobile Stainer for AFB, GRAM and Hematology and Auto Slide Smear System and Air cleaning goods and associated consumable accessories.

AT-3001 AFB MULITI

The DAGATRON AFB Multi Stainer provides fast, easy and stable staining procedure for staining sputum specimen (for detecting Tubercle Bacillus) by automatic system management.

Ahfad is a specialist for using the Automobile Stainer for AFB, GRAM and Hematology and Auto Slide Smear System and Air cleaning goods and associated consumable accessories.

Cronobacter

Cronobacter genus

The genus Cronobacter (formerly Enterobacter Sakazaki) is a type of bacteria that is sometimes found in food.

What bacteria Cronobacter genus?
The genus Cronobacter is a kind of bacteria in the environment. Although this bacterium is not generally associated with human disease, it can cause serious and even fatal infections in rare cases. It can cause bacterial Cronobacter blood circulation and rare infections of the central nervous system, especially in neonates, associated with severe intestinal infections (necrotizing enterocolitis), blood poisoning (sepsis).

How do people get sick?
Although the natural source of bacteria, Cronobacter remains unknown, it is found in a number of foods, such as infant formula.

Infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product. Bacteria Cronobacter can create a risk of infection if it survives in powder infants and the product is mixed with water and stored at room or warmer temperatures for extended periods of time. The bacterium Cronobacter grows rapidly at room temperature.

Infant formula is clonobacter contaminated with bacteria:

Depending on the raw materials used to manufacture them;
by a mixture of nursing staff.
Bacteria Cronobacter can cause disease in susceptible individuals of all ages, but they are babies, it is great for children under a year, who are supplied with a reconstitution ready Is to say risk. Children have less than 2 months of age, with Cronobacter premature birth, which is most vulnerable to bacterial infections, and low birth weight with impaired immune system. Mothers who are HIV positive may also need infant formula to make them more likely to infect them, so the risk also babies.

Bacteria Cronobacter can affect the mouth of a patient suffering from a stroke that can confer resistance to antibiotics administered therein to treat pneumonia. Bacteria are found in starch powders used to thicken foods for patients suffering from stroke, brain and other dietary supplements.

What are the symptoms and treatment?
Although the disease caused by bacteria is rare, Cronobacter is rare, they can endanger the lives of babies and newborns. Bacterial infections Cronobacter can cause inflammation of the lining of the brain (meningitis), blood poisoning (sepsis) and severe intestinal infections (necrotizing enterocolitis). These infections can in some cases be delayed in development or attack and death.

Diseases caused by bacteria Cronobacter usually reacts well to antibiotics, even when the bacteria are getting stronger. Survivors of these diseases can cause serious long-term complications such as neuropathy. Symptoms and complications are so important in adults.

How to avoid getting sick?
Bacteria Cronobacter does not survive above 60 ° C (140 ° F). Infant formulas are heat treated during processing, but unlike liquids, they are not exposed to high temperatures long enough to commercially sterilize the final product.

Here is a Cronobacter genus that shows tips for protecting yourself and protecting your family against bacteria:

Health Canada promotes breastfeeding and encourages infants and children to promote their benefits. Breastfeeding can prevent many foodborne and other health problems.
If you need to replace breast milk, choose infant formula based on the nutrition and health you need.
For high-risk infants (c.D., low birth weight and immunodeficiency in preterm infants), commercially available liquid infant milk (V.r. concentrate and ready to drink) is used Should not be because it is a sterile product, unless directed by a doctor or dietitian.
Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before (e) using the toilet or changing diapers before providing preparations and preparations.
Therefore, for
infants born in the middle of having low birth weight with impaired immune system, mix formula with boiling water for 2 minutes, then make recommendations for infant formula (PIF) preparation and handling Cool to at least 70 ° C (158 ° F).
For all other children, water previously boiled and cooled to room temperature or body temperature (37 ° C.) can be used to prepare the product. When ready, it helps to prepare the baby immediately.
Once activated bottles should be fed at 2 hour intervals. Expressions remaining after the bottle should be discarded.
Do not prepare at room temperature. Immediately use it in or put it in the refrigerator. The refrigeration preparation should be discarded after 24 hours.

Celiac disease

Linking
with gluten Celiac disease, also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a hereditary disease caused by the consumption of cereals containing gluten. If your child has a disease, the immune system reacts negatively when gluten causes damage to the lining of the small intestine. This disease can cause chronic health conditions, can reduce an person’s ability to absorb nutrients such as iron, folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, protein, fat and carbohydrates, anemia, osteoporosis and digestion Some cancers of the tube.

Gluten is a barley, oat, rye, rye, wheat (p. Eg, hard wheat, spelled and kamut) all these grains that are present in the grains of different species or hybridized strains.

Quick Info
Celiac disease affects approximately 1% of the population. The only treatment is to maintain a gluten-free diet. Persons before biopsy and blood tests were done to ensure correct diagnosis should not stop eating gluten.

Symptoms of celiac disease

Diagnosing celiac disease is difficult because the symptoms (and their severity) are different from those of another person. In babies and children, celiac disease causes abnormal diarrhea and abdominal stretch. Other symptoms that may occur: Symptoms: short stature, anemia (weakness or low resistance), developing teeth, problems or delay defects.

The combination of blood tests, small intestine biopsy and symptoms disappears with the adoption of a gluten-free diet to diagnose celiac disease.

Sri

Celiac disease

Linking
with gluten Celiac disease, also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a hereditary disease caused by the consumption of cereals containing gluten. If your child has a disease, the immune system reacts negatively when gluten causes damage to the lining of the small intestine. This disease can cause chronic health conditions, can reduce an person’s ability to absorb nutrients such as iron, folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, protein, fat and carbohydrates, anemia, osteoporosis and digestion Some cancers of the tube.

Gluten is a barley, oat, rye, rye, wheat (p. Eg, hard wheat, spelled and kamut) all these grains that are present in the grains of different species or hybridized strains.

Quick Info
Celiac disease affects approximately 1% of the population. The only treatment is to maintain a gluten-free diet. Persons before biopsy and blood tests were done to ensure correct diagnosis should not stop eating gluten.

Symptoms of celiac disease

Diagnosing celiac disease is difficult because the symptoms (and their severity) are different from those of another person. In babies and children, celiac disease causes abnormal diarrhea and abdominal stretch. Other symptoms that may occur: Symptoms: short stature, anemia (weakness or low resistance), developing teeth, problems or delay defects.

The combination of blood tests, small intestine biopsy and symptoms disappears with the adoption of a gluten-free diet to diagnose celiac disease.

Kuro

What is the Cronobacter genus?

The genus Cronobacter (formerly Enterobacter Sakazaki) is a type of bacteria that is sometimes found in food.

What bacteria Cronobacter genus?
The genus Cronobacter is a kind of bacteria in the environment. Although this bacterium is not generally associated with human disease, it can cause serious and even fatal infections in rare cases. It can cause bacterial Cronobacter blood circulation and rare infections of the central nervous system, especially in neonates, associated with severe intestinal infections (necrotizing enterocolitis), blood poisoning (sepsis).

How do people get sick?
Although the natural source of bacteria, Cronobacter remains unknown, it is found in a number of foods, such as infant formula.

Infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product. Bacteria Cronobacter can create a risk of infection if it survives in powder infants and the product is mixed with water and stored at room or warmer temperatures for extended periods of time. The bacterium Cronobacter grows rapidly at room temperature.

Infant formula is clonobacter contaminated with bacteria:

Depending on the raw materials used to manufacture them;
by a mixture of nursing staff.
Bacteria Cronobacter can cause disease in susceptible individuals of all ages, but they are babies, it is great for children under a year, who are supplied with a reconstitution ready Is to say risk. Children have less than 2 months of age, with Cronobacter premature birth, which is most vulnerable to bacterial infections, and low birth weight with impaired immune system. Mothers who are HIV positive may also need infant formula to make them more likely to infect them, so the risk also babies.

Bacteria Cronobacter can affect the mouth of a patient suffering from a stroke that can confer resistance to antibiotics administered therein to treat pneumonia. Bacteria are found in starch powders used to thicken foods for patients suffering from stroke, brain and other dietary supplements.

What are the symptoms and treatment?
Although the disease caused by bacteria is rare, Cronobacter is rare, they can endanger the lives of babies and newborns. Bacterial infections Cronobacter can cause inflammation of the lining of the brain (meningitis), blood poisoning (sepsis) and severe intestinal infections (necrotizing enterocolitis). These infections can in some cases be delayed in development or attack and death.

Diseases caused by bacteria Cronobacter usually reacts well to antibiotics, even when the bacteria are getting stronger. Survivors of these diseases can cause serious long-term complications such as neuropathy. Symptoms and complications are so important in adults.

How to avoid getting sick?
Bacteria Cronobacter does not survive above 60 ° C (140 ° F). Infant formulas are heat treated during processing, but unlike liquids, they are not exposed to high temperatures long enough to commercially sterilize the final product.

Here is a Cronobacter genus that shows tips for protecting yourself and protecting your family against bacteria:

Health Canada promotes breastfeeding and encourages infants and children to promote their benefits. Breastfeeding can prevent many foodborne and other health problems.
If you need to replace breast milk, choose infant formula based on the nutrition and health you need.
For high-risk infants (c.D., low birth weight and immunodeficiency in preterm infants), commercially available liquid infant milk (V.r. concentrate and ready to drink) is used Should not be because it is a sterile product, unless directed by a doctor or dietitian.
Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before (e) using the toilet or changing diapers before providing preparations and preparations.
Therefore, for
infants born in the middle of having low birth weight with impaired immune system, mix formula with boiling water for 2 minutes, then make recommendations for infant formula (PIF) preparation and handling Cool to at least 70 ° C (158 ° F).
For all other children, water previously boiled and cooled to room temperature or body temperature (37 ° C.) can be used to prepare the product. When ready, it helps to prepare the baby immediately.
Once activated bottles should be fed at 2 hour intervals. Expressions remaining after the bottle should be discarded.
Do not prepare at room temperature. Immediately use it in or put it in the refrigerator. The refrigeration preparation should be discarded after 24 hours.

Probiotics

What are Indigenous bacterial flora and probiotics?

Humans have different microorganisms, depending on their organization. Most of the microorganisms are contained in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and this gut microbiota represents approximately 1014 cells corresponding to the highest bacterial density for any ecosystem. Our microorganisms represent a huge variety in terms of species and function. A healthy gut microbiota is composed of a balanced society of 3 permanent residents (with beneficial effects), symbiosis (no effect), and pathobionts (potentially under certain circumstances Called pathogens, not induce pathology). It is not clear if such a bacterial flora imbalance is the cause or the result of the disease, but long-term enterotoxiosis (microorganism imbalance) is associated with many different types of disease states. Today, the challenge of linking microorganisms to human health and disease is a different research team around the world aimed at investigating the potential beneficial bacterial implications that may be diminished in the patient research plexus Is addressed by. From this point of view, it was interesting to use them as probiotics that could try to solve dysbioses.

This chapter describes the stress response of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in relation to the robustness of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract. A brief overview of some newly developed tools to understand and improve the probiotic stress response of the model L Talam WCFS1 in relation to its GI persistence. These can be modulated by relatively simple GI tract assays and reserves, and at the transcript level (eg, GI tract survival), which allows identification of transcriptomic trait matching genetic robust markers that correlate the trait of interest Adaptation and / or genetic engineering to improve robustness, including development. In addition, in-situ delivery matrices of certain additives can improve the relative resistance of bacterial strains specific to deleterious conditions that they can occur in different regions of the GI tract. Also, a methodology that allows molecular quantification of a single strain within a mixed bacterial population using engineered sequence tags, or naturally, in combination with next generation sequencing, generates discriminatory gene alliances. Offers another powerful tool for robustness assessment. Finally, the stress response of probiotic culture is discussed in relation to the improval of some future directions for the study of GI tract, developed from the perspective of their GI persistence and probiotic performance .

Gastrointestinal flora and microbial ecology

What is Microbiome?

Microbial interactions that play an important role in immune function, energy balance, and even brain development and cognitive function: The human gut microbiota is now a diet and as an important contributor to host health and disease Recognized. Importantly, these advancements in the fields of physiology and nutrition allow for the first effective measurement of important ecological parameters within, and the methodology for studying microbial communities has unmatched resolution and coverage The microbiome intestine that is coming in is providing a comprehensive toolkit of breadth. A variety of toolkits over the last 30 years have included both molecular methods for the quantification and semi-quantification of target microorganisms for a wide range of methods that can theoretically identify all microorganisms within a high resolution / ecosystem. Has been developed. These methods, too, allow researchers to shed new light on what was up until recently a black hole in the ecological function of the gut microbiota possible of gut microbiota metabolism Both sex and metabolic movement can be measured. In this chapter, we describe a collection of molecular genetic and metabolomic approaches used to study the human gut microbiota.

The human intestine consists of a variety of microorganisms that have a major impact on various human diseases. Maintaining the gut microbiota is linked to the link between metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as gastrointestinal homeostasis and obesity, type 2 diabetes, low-grade chronic inflammation, and inflammatory bowel disease. As a result, increased interest in the gut microbiota has led to the development of functional foods such as probiotics and prebiotics that reduce disease risk and improve host health. Recent advances in nucleotide sequencing technology broaden the profile of previously unknown microbial communities. International collaborative projects such as the MetaHIT initiative and the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) have revealed to the host the diversity of gut microbiota and its interaction with metabolic functions using this new technology. Current advances in these tools facilitate the analysis of large datasets, yet challenges remain for the complete construction of the microbiome. Here we discuss the development of metagenomics along with challenges and future prospects for metagenomic research to find new probiotics and prebiotics.