Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal Antibodies – Definition

The monoclonal or monoclonal antibodies are identical because they are produced by a clone of specialized cells of the immune system (plamocytes). Monoclonal antibodies are widely used in biology and medicine, both as diagnostic tools and for therapeutic purposes.

The production of these antibodies in vitro is very difficult because of the short lifespan of the plasma cells.

In vivo, the production of these antibodies can be obtained by injecting a given antigen into the animal and then extracting them from the blood. This method is very expensive and very few antibodies are obtained.

The development of the hybridoma technique by César Milstein and Georges köhler in 1975 made it possible to obtain a large quantity of antibodies at low cost and thus allow them to be used in numerous applications.
This technique consists of injecting the antigen of interest into a mouse and then taking, after a few weeks, the cells of the spleen. Among these cells are plasma cells secreting antibodies directed specifically against the chosen antigen. These plasma cells are fused with tumor cells called myeloma cells (immortal cells) thanks to the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) which induces membrane fusion and thus makes it possible to obtain hybridomas which have the capacity to multiply faster than normal body cells produce antibodies and develop specific antibodies indefinitely. The cells are then distributed in multiwell plates so that there is only one cell per well. In order to eliminate the plasma cells and the non-fused myeloma cells, a selective culture medium (HAT culture medium) will be used. Unfused plasma cells die quickly and the myeloma cells used which have a non-functional gene for an enzyme involved in the synthesis of nucleotides-hypoxanthine – guanine – phosphoribosyl – transferase (HGRPT) are unable to survive in HAT (hypoxanthine aminopterin thymidine) medium.
Only hybrid cells multiply. After ten days, each well is checked for the presence of antibodies against the antigen used to immunize the mouse. The producer cells are transplanted. A few producer cell clones are thus isolated which can be stored in liquid nitrogen.

Monoclonal Antibodies – Application examples

Ovulation test:

The anti-luteinizing hormone monoclonal antibodies which reveal the increase in the level of hormone LH (precursory sign of ovulation).

Pregnancy test

The principle is based on the detection of the hormone hGC (human Chorionic Gonadotropin) in the urine through a specific colored reaction through the use of anti-hGC monoclonal antibodies.

Treatment

Manufacture of monoclonal antibodies against antigens carried by tumor cells in order to destroy them. The advantage of using monoclonal antibodies for anti-cancer treatment lies in their specificity in destroying target cells. One can either use antibodies alone (naked antibodies) which by attaching to the cell cause its death or associated with another molecule such as a toxin or a radioactive product. The antibody serves in this case there, to bring towards the tumor cell the element which will destroy it.

ELISA test

Use of monoclonal antibodies as tracer antibodies in the ELISA test (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). This type of test is used in particular in screening for seropositivity to the HIV virus, that is to say to demonstrate the presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the serum.

Monoclonal Antibodies – Disadvantage

Since most monoclonal antibodies are produced in rodent cells, an immune reaction can be seen when injected into a patient. This immunity gradually inactivates the beneficial action of the monoclonal antibody. To remedy this problem, “chimeric” or “humanized” antibodies are produced.

Chimeric Antibodies

The “chimeric” antibodies are obtained by grafting the constant parts of human immunoglobulin onto the variable parts of a mouse antibody.

Humanized Antibodies

“humanized” antibodies are produced by microbial fermentation or by transgenic mice containing only part of the human genes that make the Antibodies. They are potentially better tolerated in the human body.

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) systems installed worldwide:

  • LaSalle University
  • Eindhoven University
  • Harvard Medical School
    Esco Products
    Rhode Island College
    University of Massachusetts
    St. Jude Medical
    Shimadzu Instruments
    New York Medical College
    Schering-Plough
    Sandia National Lab
  • University of Tennessee
    Honeywell
    Harvard School of Public Health
    Hach Company
    Moritex
    Rutgers University
  • Princeton University
    Villanova University
    The University of Memphis
    Stockholm University
    University of Toronto
    University of Detroit
    Medical College of Ohio
    Metropolitan Water Reclamation District
  • Pharmacopeia
  • University of Delaware
    University of Arkansas
  • Lucent Technology
  • Globe Manufacturing
    Sciex
    University of Rochester
    Dell Optics
  • University of California, Riverside
  • Novoste Corporation
    Schlumberger
    Jefferson Parish Crime Laboratory
    SmithKline Beecham
    Dow Chemical Company
  • Science Applications International Corporation
    RCA
    Northrup Research Group
  • University of Minnesota
  • GTE Products
  • Dalhousie University
    Richmond University
  • Ametek
    Loctite Corporation
  • Johnson Wax
    University of California, Livermore
  • Mobil Research
  • Temple University
    Earth Minerals Inc..
  • R&D Laboratories
  • St. Luke Medical Center
    Advanced Air Diagnosis
    Eli Lilly & Company
    Uniquest
    Quaker Chemical Company
    University of Guelph
    Nabisco
    Scripps Research Institute
    Quest Diagnostics
  • BASF
    Gilbarco, Inc..
    Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc
    Phillips Petroleum
    National Institute of Standards
    Oklahoma State University
    International Scientific
    Rosemount Analytical, Inc..
  • Rowland Institute for Science
    Sugen, Inc..
    O. S. H. A.
    TCS Medical Products
  • EG&G
    University of Maine
    Smithsonian Research Institution
    New Mexico State University
    University of Florida
  • McNeil Consumer Products
    Virginia Semiconductor
    Motorola
    University of Massachusetts Medical Center
    BioRad
    Shriners Hospital
    State University of New York
    University of Rochester Medical Center
    Lockheed Martin
    University of Houston
  • E.P.A.
    University of South Carolina
  • Emory University
  • Rockefeller University
    Quantum Dot Corporation
    University of Victoria
    Lilly and Company
    Reynolds Corporation
    Nestle
    Procter & Gamble
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory
    Ethyl Petroleum Additives, Inc..
    Indiana University
  • Susquehanna River Basin Commission
    Engelhard Corporation
    University of Mississippi
    University of Evansville
    University of Pittsburgh
  • National Research Council Canada
    ISS, Inc..
    Georgia Institute of Technology
    University of Nebraska
    Noyes Fiber Systems
    Waters Corporation
  • Union Carbide
    University of Pennsylvania
    Merck & Co., Inc..
    Perdue University
    University of Maryland
  • Probiotec Inc..
    Gentex Optics
    Instrument SA, Inc..
    University of New Mexico
    University of Puerto Rico
  • McMaster University
    Loyola University
    Varian Inc..
    Health Research Inc..
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Dartmouth College
    Virtis
    Hofstra University
  • Sievers Instruments
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • ICI America
    National Cancer Institute
    Sarnoff Corporation
    ICP-MS, ICP-OES, ICP-OS
    University of Notre Dame
    Johnson & Johnson Company
    Taylor-Wharton
    Syracuse University
    University of Puerto Rico, Humacao
    Westinghouse Savannah River Site
  • National Electrostatics Corporation
    Norfolk State University
    MDS Nordian
  • Texas A&M University
  • Lehigh University
  • University of California, San Diego
    University of Missouri
    St. Johns University
    Teledyne Brown Engineering
    Hong Kong University
    Wright State University
    St. Olaf College
    Fina Oil Company
    Northwestern University
    St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children
    Zeneca Pharmaceuticals
    University of Scranton
    Fermi Lab
  • University of California, Irvine
  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • University of Sciences Philadelphia
    University of Arizona
    Timken Company
    HiTek Hardware
    Hoechst Celanese Corporation
    West Chester University
    Colorcon
    Philadelphia College of Pharmacy & Science
    University of Waterloo
    Integrated DNA Technologies
    Monsanto Company
    Kent State University
    St. Mary’s College
    Delco Electronics Systems
    Haverford College
    John Hopkins University
    University of California, Santa Barbara
    Tufts University
    University of Connecticut
    Drexel University
    Pennsylvania State University
    Sandoz
    Howard Hughs Medical Institute
    James Madison University
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Manchester University
  • Perkin Elmer
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Walter Reed Army Medical Center
    Loma Linda University
    Parke-Davis
    Funakoshi Co., Ltd..
    Kodak
    University of Manitoba
  • Polaroid Corporation
    University of British Columbia
    University of Wyoming
    NEC Research Lab
  • University of Texas
    Sigma Chemicals
    Laser Science, Inc..
  • Rohm and Haas Company
    Hitachi Instruments
    UOP Guided Wave
    University of Vermont
    Roche Diagnostics
    Ford Aerospace
    Gulph Coast Testing Labs
    University of California, Berkeley
    ICP-OES, iCP-MS, ICP-OS
    University of Turku
    Rice University
  • Newport Scientific
    Eastman Chemical Company
    Museum Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
    Scott Paper Company
    Pfizer
    Naval Air Development Center
  • Naval Research Lab
    Wayne State University
    Allergan
    San Francisco State University
    Tennessee State University
    Rayonier Research Center
    Tulane University
  • Marshall University
    US Naval Research Lab
    DataColor
    McGill University
    University of Oregon
    University of California, Los Angeles
    Milligen Biosearch
    Wyeth Ayerst Research
  • Westinghouse Electric
  • New Engand Deconess Hospital
    Unilever Research
    Millitech Corporation
    University of Dayton
  • University of Oklahoma
    Davidson College
    Iowa State University
    Rockwell International Corporation
    Medical College of Wisconsin
    Pacific Scientific
  • Diagnostic Consumables, Inc..
    HunterLab
    Denver Water Company
    Stanford University
  • Southern Testing & Research Labs
    Digital Equipment Corporation
  • Care Research Group
  • E.I DuPont
    Howard University
    Gallo Winery
    University of California, San Francisco
  • Ford Electronics
    Lankenau Institute for Medical Research
    University of Tennessee Space Institute
    F.D.A
    University of Iowa
    Nova Biochemicals
    IBM

ICP MS

The quadrupole mass analyzers represent over 90 percent of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)systems installed worldwide, constraints within their resolving power has caused the growth of high heeled spectrometers depending on the double-focusing magnetic-sector design.

ICP-MS requires a look at this separation apparatus, that has found
its own market in solving difficult application conditions that require outstanding power, detection capacity, or substantial precision.
Accesoires for this ICP-MS instruments and cuvettes can be found at ICP consumables.

Quadrupole-based ICP-MS


Tis system normally provides a resolution of 0.7–1.0 amu. This is sufficient but has been shown to be insufficient -, solvent-, or interferences.

All these restrictions at quadrupoles drove researchers at the direction of conventional high-resolution, magnetic-sector technology to increase quantitation by controlling the analyte mass from the spectral interference
(two ). All these instruments, that were commercialized in the 1980s, provided resolving power compared with.

In resolving power, this improvement allowed elements such as Cr, K, As, V, and Fe to be determined with relative ease .

Spectroscopy


In spectroscopy for the evaluation of organic compounds that are complex. Regrettably, since it took a couple thousand volts of possible to accelerate the ions to the mass 39, it was shown to be unsuitable as a separation apparatus for an ICP system. Because of this, fundamental changes needed to be made into the ion speed mechanism to maximize it. This was a challenge when magneticsector systems were developed in the late 1980s.

But tool designers solved this dilemma by simply transferring the components into the mass spectrometer and nearer from port screen and the plasma. The instrumentation of today relies on two approaches, commonly known reverse geometry or as standard. These two designs, which utilize the identical basic principles, include 2 analyzers — a conventional electromagnet and an electrostatic analyzer (ESA). From the
normal (sometimes called forwards ) layout, the ESA is placed ahead of the
magnet, and at the opposite layout it’s placed after the magnet. A schematic of a reverse spectrometer that was Nier-Johnson.


PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

With this strategy, ions are sampled in the plasma at a fashion and then accelerated to some kilovolts from the ion region until they enter the analyzer. The field, which can be dispersive connected to mass and ion energy, focuses the ions with angles of movement from the entry slit.

Spectroscopy labs

  • University of Illinois
    Massachusetts General Hospital
    Georgetown University
  • University of Quebec
    Arco
    General Electric Company
    University of Michigan
    Montana State University
  • New York State Department of Health
    University of Mississippi Medical Center
    Yale University
    Mount Sinai Hospital
  • Polytechnic University
    University of Georgia
    Kansas State University
    North Carolina State University
    Oregon State University
    University of South Florida
  • Kulicke & Soffa Industries
    US Department of Energy
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Duke University
    University of Kentucky
    Hewlett-Packard
    Glaxo Wellcome
    Portland State University
    Florida Marine Research Institute
    Langley Research Center
  • US Drug Testing Inc..
    Premier Mill
  • Datum Engineering
  • ECO Chemie BV – Netherlands
  • University of Madrid
    The University of Alabama
    Southwest Research Institute
    Nicolet Instrument Company
    Michigan State University
    Hahnemann University
  • EIC Laboratory
    University of New Hampshire
    Inc..
    Hamilton Research
  • M.I.T.
  • University of Idaho
  • ARE YOU USING SPECTROCELL PRODUCTS, Aren’t LISTED HERE AND WOULD LIKE TO BE? EMAIL
    Fisher Scientific
  • N.A.S.A.
    Martin Marietta Energy Systems
    University of South Dakota
    VWR Scientific
    US Army Research Laboratory
    Trinity University
  • Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Laboratory Corporation of America
    Pharmacia
    National Institute of Health
    University of Iceland
    Texas Children’s Hospital
    University of Utah
    US Department of Agriculture
  • Rochester Institute of Technology
  • Mayo Foundation
  • Ohio State University
    University of Southern Denmark
    Omicron Biochemicalc Inc..
    University of California, Davis
    University of California, Santa Cruz
    Exxon Chemical Company
    Willamette University
    Vanderbilt University
    Selas Corporation
    Marshall Space Flight Center
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Washington State University
    Louisiana State University
  • University of Nevada