Probiotics

What are Indigenous bacterial flora and probiotics?

Humans have different microorganisms, depending on their organization. Most of the microorganisms are contained in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and this gut microbiota represents approximately 1014 cells corresponding to the highest bacterial density for any ecosystem. Our microorganisms represent a huge variety in terms of species and function. A healthy gut microbiota is composed of a balanced society of 3 permanent residents (with beneficial effects), symbiosis (no effect), and pathobionts (potentially under certain circumstances Called pathogens, not induce pathology). It is not clear if such a bacterial flora imbalance is the cause or the result of the disease, but long-term enterotoxiosis (microorganism imbalance) is associated with many different types of disease states. Today, the challenge of linking microorganisms to human health and disease is a different research team around the world aimed at investigating the potential beneficial bacterial implications that may be diminished in the patient research plexus Is addressed by. From this point of view, it was interesting to use them as probiotics that could try to solve dysbioses.

This chapter describes the stress response of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in relation to the robustness of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract. A brief overview of some newly developed tools to understand and improve the probiotic stress response of the model L Talam WCFS1 in relation to its GI persistence. These can be modulated by relatively simple GI tract assays and reserves, and at the transcript level (eg, GI tract survival), which allows identification of transcriptomic trait matching genetic robust markers that correlate the trait of interest Adaptation and / or genetic engineering to improve robustness, including development. In addition, in-situ delivery matrices of certain additives can improve the relative resistance of bacterial strains specific to deleterious conditions that they can occur in different regions of the GI tract. Also, a methodology that allows molecular quantification of a single strain within a mixed bacterial population using engineered sequence tags, or naturally, in combination with next generation sequencing, generates discriminatory gene alliances. Offers another powerful tool for robustness assessment. Finally, the stress response of probiotic culture is discussed in relation to the improval of some future directions for the study of GI tract, developed from the perspective of their GI persistence and probiotic performance .

Gastrointestinal flora and microbial ecology

What is Microbiome?

Microbial interactions that play an important role in immune function, energy balance, and even brain development and cognitive function: The human gut microbiota is now a diet and as an important contributor to host health and disease Recognized. Importantly, these advancements in the fields of physiology and nutrition allow for the first effective measurement of important ecological parameters within, and the methodology for studying microbial communities has unmatched resolution and coverage The microbiome intestine that is coming in is providing a comprehensive toolkit of breadth. A variety of toolkits over the last 30 years have included both molecular methods for the quantification and semi-quantification of target microorganisms for a wide range of methods that can theoretically identify all microorganisms within a high resolution / ecosystem. Has been developed. These methods, too, allow researchers to shed new light on what was up until recently a black hole in the ecological function of the gut microbiota possible of gut microbiota metabolism Both sex and metabolic movement can be measured. In this chapter, we describe a collection of molecular genetic and metabolomic approaches used to study the human gut microbiota.

The human intestine consists of a variety of microorganisms that have a major impact on various human diseases. Maintaining the gut microbiota is linked to the link between metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as gastrointestinal homeostasis and obesity, type 2 diabetes, low-grade chronic inflammation, and inflammatory bowel disease. As a result, increased interest in the gut microbiota has led to the development of functional foods such as probiotics and prebiotics that reduce disease risk and improve host health. Recent advances in nucleotide sequencing technology broaden the profile of previously unknown microbial communities. International collaborative projects such as the MetaHIT initiative and the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) have revealed to the host the diversity of gut microbiota and its interaction with metabolic functions using this new technology. Current advances in these tools facilitate the analysis of large datasets, yet challenges remain for the complete construction of the microbiome. Here we discuss the development of metagenomics along with challenges and future prospects for metagenomic research to find new probiotics and prebiotics.

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