Gastrointestinal flora and microbial ecology

What is Microbiome?

Microbial interactions that play an important role in immune function, energy balance, and even brain development and cognitive function: The human gut microbiota is now a diet and as an important contributor to host health and disease Recognized. Importantly, these advancements in the fields of physiology and nutrition allow for the first effective measurement of important ecological parameters within, and the methodology for studying microbial communities has unmatched resolution and coverage The microbiome intestine that is coming in is providing a comprehensive toolkit of breadth. A variety of toolkits over the last 30 years have included both molecular methods for the quantification and semi-quantification of target microorganisms for a wide range of methods that can theoretically identify all microorganisms within a high resolution / ecosystem. Has been developed. These methods, too, allow researchers to shed new light on what was up until recently a black hole in the ecological function of the gut microbiota possible of gut microbiota metabolism Both sex and metabolic movement can be measured. In this chapter, we describe a collection of molecular genetic and metabolomic approaches used to study the human gut microbiota.

The human intestine consists of a variety of microorganisms that have a major impact on various human diseases. Maintaining the gut microbiota is linked to the link between metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as gastrointestinal homeostasis and obesity, type 2 diabetes, low-grade chronic inflammation, and inflammatory bowel disease. As a result, increased interest in the gut microbiota has led to the development of functional foods such as probiotics and prebiotics that reduce disease risk and improve host health. Recent advances in nucleotide sequencing technology broaden the profile of previously unknown microbial communities. International collaborative projects such as the MetaHIT initiative and the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) have revealed to the host the diversity of gut microbiota and its interaction with metabolic functions using this new technology. Current advances in these tools facilitate the analysis of large datasets, yet challenges remain for the complete construction of the microbiome. Here we discuss the development of metagenomics along with challenges and future prospects for metagenomic research to find new probiotics and prebiotics.